Expanding Sublime and Awe to Gaming Experience: Scoping Review
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Authors: Ain Lee, Young Yim Doh


본 연구는 숭고와 경외 경험이 어떻게 게임 경험으로 확장될 수 있는지 탐구하고 관련 연구 동향을 분석하는 것을 목표로 한다. 숭고와 경외는 예술, 철학, 심리학 등에서 광범위하게 연구되어왔던 감정적-미적 경험이지만, 게임 분야로의 적용은 최근에 주목받기 시작했다. 본 논문에서는 최근 새롭게 부상하고 있는 게임에서의 숭고와 경외 경험을 다룬 다양한 문헌들을 주제범위 문헌고찰을 통해 검토하고 분석함으로써 최근 연구의 동향을 파악한다. 이를 통해 후속 연구의 필요성과 연구 방향을 제시하며, 나아가 미래 게임에서 숭고와 경외 경험의 확장 가능성에 대해 논의한다.

Journal: 한국게임학회 2023.6.3 

MindTerior: A Mental Healthcare Game with Metaphoric Gamespace and Effective Activities for Mitigating Mild Emotional Difficulties
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Authors: Ain Lee, Juhyun Lee, Sooyeon Ahn, Youngik Lee

Abstract: Contemporaries suffer from more stress and emotional difficulties, but developing practices that allow them to manage and become aware of emotional states has been a challenge. MindTerior is a mental health care game developed for people who occasionally experience mild emotional difficulties. The game contains four mechanisms: measuring players’ emotional state, providing game activities that help mitigate certain negative emotions, visualizing players’ emotional state and letting players cultivate the game space with customizable items, and completing game events that educate players on how to cope with certain negative emotions. This set of gameplays can allow players to experience effective positive emotional relaxation and to perform gamified mental health care activities. Playtest showed that projecting players’ emotional state to a virtual game space is helpful for players to be conscious of their emotional state, and playing gamified activities is helpful for mental health care. Additionally, the game motivated players to practice the equivalent activities in real life.

Journal : ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Student Game Design Competition, published 2023.04 [Link]

Bean Academy: A Music Composition Game for Beginners with Vocal Query Transcription
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Authors: Jaejun Lee, Hyeyoon Cho, Yonghyun Kim

Abstract:Bean Academy is a music composition game designed for musically-unskilled learners to lower entry barriers to music composition learning such as music theory comprehension, literacy and proficiency in utilizing music composition software. As a solution, Bean Academy’s Studio Mode was designed with the adaptation of an auditory-based ‘Vocal Query Transcription(VQT)’ model to enhance learners’ satisfaction and enjoyment towards music composition learning. Through the VQT model, players can experience a simple and efficient music composition process by experiencing their recorded voice input being transcripted into an actual musical piece. Based on our playtest, thematic analysis was conducted in two separate experiment groups. Here, we noticed that although Bean Academy does not outperform the current-level Digital Audio Workstation(DAW) in terms of performance or functionality, it can be highly considered as suitable learning material for musically-unskilled learners.

Journal : ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Student Game Design Competition, published 2023.04 [Link]


Toward a game literacy program for adults in their 50s and older: changing perceptions through game experiences
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Authors: Seyeon lee, Chung-Kon Shi, Young Yim Doh

Abstract: There is criticism that discussions surrounding games for older populations are mainly focused on practical approaches to cognitive and physical training. In addition, negative attitudes toward digital games and limited experience contribute to older populations’ isolation from mainstream game culture. This study aims to examine perception changes toward digital games in adults in their 50s and older as they gain actual game experience and an appropriate game literacy program for older populations. We organized eight sessions of gameplay workshops for participants aged 50 years and over (N = 40, age range = 50–85 years) at two senior learning centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. The workshops consisted of lectures for game literacy, co-playing of mobile games, and discussions about game experience. A thematic analysis of participants’ statements and game diaries revealed their perception changes toward games. Participants engaged in a variety of mobile games and felt conflicted between their positive and negative experiences. They reported that their game experience had contributed to identifying the positive values of games, understanding diversity, and improving their understanding of the younger generation. In addition, they indicated that future directions for fostering a game culture in older age groups should include playing for connectivity, health, relaxation, and game literacy education. This study highlights games as a cultural medium that entertains and connects people. By linking theories with practice, we propose a framework for a game literacy program to support older populations’ active participation in game culture.

Journal: Journal of Educational Gerontology, published 2022.11.11 [Link]

Seung-ee and Kkaebi: A VR-Mobile Cross Platform Game based on Co-Presence for a Balanced Immersive Experience
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Authors: Jinwook Kim, Pooseung Koh, Seokjun Kang, Hyunyoung Jang, Young Yim Doh, Juhan Nam, Jeongmi Lee

Abstract:A growing number of VR games are published in the market as head-mounted devices (HMD) become more widespread. However, most VR games are targeted for a single-player audience, and cross-platform VR experiences where multiple players are engaged have yet to be fully explored. In this paper, we propose a VR-mobile cross-platform game based on traditional Korean mythology, Seung-ee & Kkaebi. Our goal was to create an immersive and enjoyable experience for players for both mobile and VR players where they are physically co-located, increasing both co-presence and social interaction. Our game design focused on asymmetric competition and maximized the interactions between both platforms. The VR player plays the role of Jangseung (Seek), a Korean traditional totem pole, whereas the mobile user plays the role of Dokkaebi (Hide), a Korean mythological creature. Each platform has its unique skill set to interrupt each other to win the game, thus creating a highly immersive and co-present experience for both players.

Conference: 2022 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, published 2022.11.07 [Link]

Towards Inclusive Digital Museum Innovation: Part 1
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Authors: Juhee Park, Rafie Cecilia, Theano Moussouri, Young Yim Doh, Jungwha Kim, Ellen Pavey, Chenxing Zhao, Karam Eum, Pooseung Koh

Abstract:  The Inclusive Digital Museum Innovation is a cross-disciplinary, international research network (Feb 2022 - Jul 2023) funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council, exploring inclusive approaches to the digital transformation of cultural institutions. The network aims to motivate museums to take actions to mitigate global challenges of digital inequality and the digital divide in society, improve our understanding of digital ethics regarding museum practices, and explore the potential benefits of digital gaming towards equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) in museums. The network was set up by University College London, Institute of Archaeology, in the UK, and the Games and Life Lab, Graduate School of Culture Technology (GSCT), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Republic of Korea, in collaboration with seven partner museums in the two countries.

Conference: COM International Committee for Education and Cultural Action (CECA) Conference as part of the 26th ICOM General Conference, published 2022.08.20,[PDF Download]

Towards Inclusive Digital Museum Innovation: The Meaning Behind Building the UK-S.Korea Digital Museum Research Community
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Authors: Park Juhee, Seyeon Lee, Young Yim Doh, Junghwa Kim, Pooseung Koh

Abstract: This presentation is to raise awareness and publicise the lack of accessibility and inclusivity in the ongoing digital transformation of museums. In order to tackle this issue a research network has formed between the Department of Museum Studies at the University College London, KAIST Games and Life Lab, and seven national and public museums from both South Korea and the United Kingdom (National Folk Museum of Korea, Gwacheon National Science Museum, National Library of Korea, Nam June Paik Art Center, Victoria & Albert Museum, Science Museum Group, British Library). Our presentation explains the background and motivation of forming this network, and shares our vision for the digital accessibility and inclusivity in museums. 

Conference: Proceedings of the 47th Korean Museum Studies Society Conference, published 2022.05.22,[PDF Download]

Classy Trash Monster: An Educational Game for Teaching Machine Learning to Non-major Students
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Authors: Karam Eum, Joonhyung Bae, Haram Kwon, Seolhee Lee, Young Yim Doh, Juhan Nam

Abstract: As machine learning (ML) became more relevant to our lives, ML education for college students without technical background arose important. However, not many educational games designed to suit challenges they experience exist. We introduce an educational game Classy Trash Monster(CTM), designed to better educate ML and data dependency to non-major students who learn ML for the first time. The player can easily learn to train a classification model and solve tasks by engaging in simple game activities designed according to an ML pipeline. Simple controls, positive rewards, and clear audiovisual feedback makes game easy to play even for novice players. The playtest result showed that players were able to learn basic ML concepts and how data can impact model results, and that the game made ML feel less difficult and more relevant. However, proper debriefing session seems crucial to prevent misinterpretations that may occur in the learning process.

Journal: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Student Game Design Competition, published 2022.05.02 [Link]

Play With Your Emotions: Exploring Possibilities of Emotions as Game Input in NERO
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Authors: Valérie Erb, Tatiana Chibisova Bae, Haesoo Kim, Young Yim Doh, Jeongmi Lee

Abstract:This work presents NERO, a game concept using the player's active emotional input to map the emotional state of the player to representative in-game characters. Emotional input in games has been mainly used as a passive measure to adjust for game difficulty or other variables. However the player has not been given the possibility to explore and play with one's emotions as an active feature. Given the high subjectivity of felt emotions we wanted to focus on the player's experience of emotional input rather than the objective accuracy of the input sensor. We therefore implemented a proof-of-concept game using heart-rate as a proxy for emotion measurement and through repeated player tests the game mechanics were revised and evaluated. Valuable insight for the design of entertainment-focused emotional input games were gained, including emotional connection despite limited accuracy, influence of the environment and the importance of calibration. The players overall enjoyed the novel game experience and their feedback carries useful implications for future games including active emotional input.

Journal: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Student Game Design Competition, published 2022.05.02 [Link]


Design Strategies for Intergenerational Games: A Case Study on the Development of the Mobile Game
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Authors: Seyeon Lee, Hae in Kim, Hyuna Cho, Kyunghyun Lee, Minseok Do, Hajun Kim, Injeong Lee, Byungjoo Lee, Young Yim Doh

Abstract:  The current game market is targeted towards the young and there exists a generational gap and lack of consideration for senior game players. To address this issue we create a prototype of a mobile game called Ghost Family and provide design strategies for intergenerational games.

Conference: Korea Game Society 2021 Autumn Conference, published 2021.11.26,[PDF Download]

Player-Character Relationship and Game Satisfaction in Narrative Game: Focus On Player Experience Of Character Switch In The Last Of Us Part II
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Authors: Valérie Erb, Young Yim Doh, Seyeon Lee

Abstract: The diversity of players and the importance of the player character(PC) in the game suggests meaningful connections between how players relate to their PC and the resulting satisfaction with the game. We, therefore, investigated in this study how the player-character relationship influences satisfaction of the player with the game. We performed semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 players of The Last of Us Part II. Through thematic analysis, three themes were found, illustrating the connection between aspects of the player-character relationship and the overall game satisfaction. The themes are “Tolerance of forced character switch”, “Malleability of character image” and “Flexibility of character attachment”.

Journal: Frontiers Psychology, published 2021.09.27 [Link]

How the Death-themed Game Spiritfarer Can Help Players Cope with the Loss of a Loved One
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Authors: Karam Eum, Valérie Erb, Subin Lin, Sungpil Wang, Young Yim Doh

Abstract: While commercial videogames are increasingly recognized to be able to facilitate meaningful experiences, little has been researched on its potential as a medium to help players cope with the loss of a loved one. In this study, we aimed to investigate the player’s bereavement process while playing the commercial death-themed game Spiritfarer. Through a thematic analysis of qualitative in-depth interviews with 6 participants, we found that the player’s grieving experience closely resembled the Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement by Stroebe and Schut. We further found that the players bereavement experience and level of engagement greatly varied depending on their ‘prior loss experience’, ‘gaming environment’ and ‘tendency to focus on self or game’. Those differences were partly accommodated by the game through its complex and diverse characters and engaging game elements. We conclude with insights for future works in game design for bereavement support.

Conference: 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, published 2021.05.20 [Link]

Mobile Game Design Guide to Improve Gaming Experience for the Middle-Aged and Older Adult Population: User-Centered Design Approach
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Authors: Seyeon Lee, Hyunyoung Oh,Chung-Kon Shi, Young Yim Doh

Abstract:The number of older adult gamers who play mobile games is growing worldwide. Earlier studies have reported that digital games provide cognitive, physical, and socioemotional benefits for older adults. However, current mobile games that understand older adults' gameplay experience and reflect their needs are very scarce. Furthermore, studies that have analyzed older adults' game experience in a holistic manner are rare.

Journal: JMIR Serious Games, published 2021.05.20[Link]

The Relationship Between Co-Playing and Socioemotional Status Among Older-Adult Game Players
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Authors: Seyeon Lee, Chung-Kon Shi, Young Yim Doh

Abstract:This study aimed to investigate differences in socioemotional status and perceptions of video games among older adult co-players, solo players, and non-players of video games. We collected data on these three groups through a survey of 190 Korean participants between the ages of 50 and 69 years (Mean age = 59.2). Results showed that co-players expressed a higher positive affect and well-being, higher companionship and emotional support, and more positive perceptions of video games than solo players and non-players.

Journal: Entertainment Computing, published 2021.02.03 [Link]


Life Review Using a Life Metaphoric Game to Promote Intergenerational Communication
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Authors: Seyeon Lee, Hyunyoung Oh, Chung-Kon Shi, Young Yim Doh

Abstract: This study explores whether a life metaphoric game can effectively facilitate communication between senior participants and young adult partners during a life review activity. Life review provides older adults with opportunities to organize their past experiences, rediscover the meaning of life, and prepare for their future life and eventual death. Through inductive thematic analysis, we found seven communication themes during the life review activity: reminiscence, future and death preparation, life advice, appreciation and evaluation, small talks involving self-disclosure, interpretation of metaphors, and explanation of game control methods. We investigated the relationships between communication themes and game design elements that promote conversation.

Conference:  Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, published 2020.10.15 [Link]

The Cyclic Value-Context Reinforcement Model of Problematic Internet Use: Empirical Validation Using a Thematic Analysis of Children’s Counseling Data
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Authors: Young Yim Doh, Bugeun Kim, Seul Lee, Gahgene Gweon

Abstract: In this paper, we propose the Cyclic Value-Context Reinforcement Model (CVCRM) to understand problematic internet use behavior. The purpose of our study was to construct a developmental process model that provides a holistic understanding of problematic internet use behavior of children and to empirically validate the proposed model by conducting a thematic analysis on actual counseling data. Through this empirical validation, the CVCRM can provide a theoretical framework and an integrated perspective on the developmental mechanism of problematic internet use behavior of children.

Journal: JMIR Serious Games, published 2020.07.14 [Link]


Exploring Game Culture Elements Through Steam Platform Review Text Analysis
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Authors:  Kiseul Suh, Young Yim Doh, Kim L.

Abstract:  This study examines the social perceptions formed about game culture based on big data analysis. We analyzed game-related keywords and reviews from game users expressed online to discover data-based policy implications and present communication strategies.

Conference: Korea Game Society Conference 2019 Fall Proceedings, published 2019.10.29

Artistic Meaning of the Game Experience : Focus on Player's Perspective
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Authors: Mijin Kim, Minseo Kim, Gyuhwan Oh. Young Yim Doh

Abstract:The purpose of this study is to identify how game players experience games artistically. We organized indicator categories related to artistic experiences in games through play report produced in participatory player workshop. Based on this indicator, we embodied the artistic meaning of game experience by performing semantic network analysis. As a result, we verified that games can offer opportunities for players to reflect on themselves and their lives.

Journal: Journal of Korea Game Society, published 2019.10.03 [Link]


Game Design Guide For Adults in Their 50s and Older
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Authors:  Byungjoo Lee, Young Yim Doh, Kyung Myun Lee, Junyoung Shin, Minseok Do, Injung Lee, Seyeon Lee, Seokbeom Park, Hajun Kim, Taeeun Kim, Hyunwook Lee, Hae in Kim, Jongchang Park, Kyunghyun Lee, Hyuna Cho

Book Summary: This guide presents important considerations when developing games for players in their 50s and older. We wrote this guide based on a variety of game workshops and experiments related to cognitive motor skills for players in thier 50s and older, as well as participant feedback from playing various genres of mobile games.

Date Published: 2022.03.29 [Link] 

The Next World Is Coming: Post Metaverse
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Authors:  Woontack Woo, Wonjae Lee, Eunsoo Lee,  Young Yim Doh, et. al

Book Summary: KAIST Graduate School of Culture and Technology held a forum under the theme of metaverse' substance and future prospects, and this book is an insight into metaverse' substance and future written by 19 top experts in each field of KAIST's current faculty. The authors guide the general public to easily understand and predict how metaverse has evolved, how it is being used now, and how far it will expand in the future, with meta-bus knowledge, insights, and prospects for its field. From researchers who have studied virtual reality for 30 years to artists who create a new sense of space by combining virtual reality with art, the writers are not only experts but also those who have fully experienced metaverse, and illuminate metaverse' past and present. In addition, the future outlook of metaverse based on the authors' expertise can gauge the realistic scalability of metaverse. Through this book, readers can see the expertise and future of KAIST's scholarship, who are studying the metaverse in various fields such as humanities, linguistics, urban architecture, and art beyond science, engineering, and technology.

Publisher: Porche Books, published 2022.03.09 [Link]